'Slaughter, James R. “In Pursuit of Perfection: A Primary Care
Physician’s Guide to Body Dysmorphic Disorder.”
American Family Physician 60 (October 1999): 569–580.
ORGANIZATIONS Bodywork—Any technique involving hands-on
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 3615 massage or manipulation of the body.
Wisconsin Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20016-3007.
(202) 966-7300. Fax: (202) 966-2891. .
Endorphins—A group of peptide compounds
released by the body in response to stress or trau-
National Institute of Mental Health. 6001 Executive
Boulevard, Room 8184, MSC 9663, Bethesda, MD matic injury. Endorphins react with opiate recep-
20892-9663. (301) 443-4513. . tors in the brain to reduce or relieve pain sensa-
tions. Shiatsu is thought to work by stimulating the
Rebecca J. Frey, Ph.D. release of endorphins.
Fascia (plural, fasciae)—A band or sheath of con-
nective tissue that covers, supports, or connects
the muscles and the internal organs.
Ki—The Japanese spelling of qi, the traditional
Bodywork therapies Chinese term for vital energy or the life force.
Meridians—In traditional Chinese medicine, a
Definition network of pathways or channels that convey qi
Bodywork therapies is a general term that refers to a (also sometimes spelled “ki”), or vital energy,
group of body-based approaches to treatment that through the body.
emphasize manipulation and realignment of the body’s Movement education—A term that refers to the
structure in order to improve its function as well as the active phase of bodywork, in which clients learn
client’s mental outlook. These therapies typically com- to move with greater freedom and to maintain the
bine a relatively passive phase, in which the client proper alignment of their bodies.
receives deep-tissue bodywork or postural correction
Repetitive stress injury (RSI)—A type of injury to
from an experienced instructor or practitioner, and a
the musculoskeletal and nervous systems associat-
more active period of movement education, in which the
ed with occupational strain or overuse of a specif-
client practices sitting, standing, and moving about with
ic part of the body. Bodywork therapies are often
better alignment of the body and greater ease of motion.
recommended to people suffering from RSIs.
Bodywork should not be equated with massage simply
Somatic education—A term used in both
speaking. Massage therapy is one form of bodywork, but in
Hellerwork and the Feldenkrais method to
massage therapy, the practitioner uses oil or lotion to reduce
describe the integration of bodywork with self-
the friction between his or her hands and the client’s skin.
awareness, intelligence, and imagination.
In most forms of body work, little if any lubrication is used,
as the goal of this type of hands-on treatment is to warm, Structural integration—The term used to describe
relax and stretch the fascia (a band or sheath of connective the method and philosophy of life associated with
tissue that covers, supports, or connects the muscles and the Rolfing. Its fundamental concept is the vertical
internal organs) and underlying layers of tissue. line.
Tsubo—In shiatsu, a center of high energy located
Purpose along one of the body’s meridians. Stimulation of
the tsubos during a shiatsu treatment is thought to
The purpose of bodywork therapy is the correction of rebalance the flow of vital energy in the body.
problems in the client’s overall posture, connective tissue,
and/or musculature in order to bring about greater ease of
movement, less discomfort, and a higher level of energy Bodywork therapies are holistic in that they stress
in daily activity. Some forms of bodywork have as a sec-
increased self-awareness and intelligent use of one’s
ondary purpose the healing or prevention of repetitive
body as one of the goals of treatment. Some of these
stress injuries, particularly for people whose occupations
require intensive use of specific parts of the body (such as therapies use verbal discussion, visualization or guided
dancers, musicians, professional athletes, opera singers, imagery along with movement education to help clients
etc.) Bodywork may also heal or prevent specific muscu- break old patterns of moving and feeling. Although most
loskeletal problems, such as lower back pain or neck pain. bodywork therapists do not address mental disorders
G A L E E N C Y L O P E D I A O F M E N TA L D I S O R D E R S 137